Indian Railways (IR) is a governmental entity under the Ministry of Railways which operates India’s national railway system. It is run by the government as a public good and manages the fourth largest railway network in the world by size, with a route length of 68,155 km (42,350 mi) as of March 2019.
Recruitment is done through 2 examinations:
The Indian Railway Service of Mechanical Engineers recruits 50 per cent of the candidates through the Combined Engineering Services Examination. The remaining 50 per cent are recruited as the Special Class Railway Apprentices for which U.P.S.C. conducts a separate competitive examination every year.
The Railway Recruitment Boards located at different parts of the country also recruit individuals for various positions viz. TTC, Asst. Station Masters, Goods Guards etc. Apart from these positions RRBs also recruit teachers, physical instructors, doctors in various departments, nurses and paramedical personnel through countrywide written tests.
|Path 1||Clear Class XII with PCM||Graduation in Physics, Mathematics or Chemistry||Special Class Railway Apprentices’ Examination, Civil Services Examination|
|Path 2||Clear Class XII with Science stream||Pursue B.Tech for 4 years (any specialization)||Combined Engineering Services Examination (CES)|
|Path 3||Clear Class XII with Any stream||Pursue Graduation in Any Stream||
Under Civil services Exam
Indian Railways is among the world’s largest rail network. Indian Railways route length network is spread over 1,23,236 kms, with 13,452 passenger trains and 9,141 freight trains plying 23 million travellers and 3 million tonnes (MT) of freight daily from 7,349 stations. India’s railway network is recognised as one of the largest railway systems in the world under single management.
The railway network is also ideal for long-distance travel and movement of bulk commodities, apart from being an energy efficient and economic mode of conveyance and transport. Indian Railways is the preferred carrier of automobiles in the country.
Government of India has focused on investing in railway infrastructure by making investor-friendly policies. It has moved quickly to enable Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in railways to improve infrastructure for freight and high-speed trains. At present, several domestic and foreign companies are also looking to invest in Indian rail projects.
Indian Railways’ revenue increased at a CAGR of 6.20 per cent during FY08-FY19 to US$ 27.13 billion in FY19. Earnings from the passenger business grew at a CAGR of 6.43 per cent during FY07-FY19 to reach US$ 7.55 billion in FY19P. Freight revenue rose at a CAGR of 4.30 per cent during FY08-FY19 to reach US$ 18.20 billion in FY19.
Revenue growth has been strong over the years. Indian Railways’ gross revenue stood at Rs 183,092.74 crore (US$ 26.20 billion) in FY20 (till February 2020). Freight earnings in FY20 (till February 2020) stood at Rs 119,216.11 crore (US$ 17.06 billion). Passenger earnings for Indian Railways was estimated at 51,077.73 crore (US$ 7.31 billion) in FY20 (till February 2020). Freight remains the major revenue earning segment for Railways, accounting for 65.1 per cent of its total revenue in FY20 (till February 2020), followed by the passenger segment.
Passenger traffic was valued at 7.67 billion and freight traffic at 1,105.33 million tonnes in FY20 (till February 2020).
India was among the top 20 exporters of railways globally as of 2017. India’s export of railways has grown at a CAGR of 31.51 per cent during 2010-2018 to US$ 507.90 million. Exports of railways in 2019E stood at US$ 635 million.
Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflow in Railways Related Components stood at US$ 1,107.60 million from April 2000 to March 2020.
Following are some of the major investments and developments in India’s railways sector:
Few recent initiatives taken up by the Government are:
Indian Railway network is growing at a healthy rate. In the next five years, Indian railway market will be the third largest, accounting for 10 per cent of the global market. Indian Railways, which is one of the country’s biggest employers, can generate one million jobs, according to Mr Piyush Goyal, Union Minister for Railways and Coal.
Indian Railways is targeting to increase its freight traffic to 3.3 billion tonnes by 2030 from 1.1 billion tonnes in 2017.
It is projected that freight traffic via the Dedicated Freight Corridors will increase at a CAGR of 5.4 per cent to 182 MT in 2021–22 from 140 MT in 2016–17.
Note: Conversion rate used in April 2020, Rs 1 = US$ 0.013123
References: Press Releases, Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion, Press information Bureau, Media Reports, Railways Budget 2019-20, Indian Railways